Including the Taiwan Earth System Model (TaiESM, 50-100 km), High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM, 25 and 50 km), and extreme high-resolution Taiwan-nested global atmospheric model (FV3GFS, 3/13 km)
- Further improvements of TaiESM: Cloud macrophysics and microphysics, cloud-aerosol-precipitation interaction processes, atmospheric radiation, and dynamical core;
- HiRAM-1D ocean coupled model for the climate change study on extreme weather;
- Adopting FV3GFS for the development of Taiwan Unified Model for Weather and Climate;
- Evaluating model performance and identifying the sources of model biases, such as air-sea-land interaction, cloud-radiation-circulation interaction, boundary layer, and convection.