2022 暑期研習計畫成果

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報告名稱
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期刊
2022.08.22
The effect of iron on the heat tolerance of a Acropora sp.
李崇瑞(國立中山大學海洋生物科技暨資源學系), 何東垣
參與「珊瑚白化與共生藻的金屬需求」研習計畫

報告摘要

Corals suffer from heat stress. Based on previous study showing a kind of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates attain high growth rate under high bioavailable iron (Fe') concentrtion (500pM), We wonder if high [Fe'] helps corals to increase their heat tolerance.
The results show that symbiotic algae in Acropora maintain higher photosynthetic efficiency in seawater of 500 pM Fe' compared to 0 pM. While more studies are needed to confirm our hypothesis.

關鍵字

corals, endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, heat stress, heat tolerance, iron, coral bleaching

相關連結

2022.08.22
Effects of iron on the heat tolerance of Stylophora pistillata
鄭淨予(加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學生物化學系),何東垣 Tung-Yuan Ho
參與「珊瑚白化與共生藻的金屬需求」研習計畫

報告摘要

Nutrients limitation and rising seawater temperature are natural environmental stressors in weakening the coral-algae mutualism. To investigate the influence of iron concentration on the thermal tolerance of corals, the photosynthetic efficiency of symbiotic algae was measured when exposed to increasing temperatures (24 to 33°C). Growing the coral Stylophora pistillata under iron-replete (500 pM Fe’) and limiting (50 pM Fe’) conditions were found to reduce the maximum quantum yields (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II. The degree of Coral bleaching suffered the most in the iron-replete treatment at the post-heat stress stage.

關鍵字

iron, coral bleaching, heat stress, photosynthetic endosymbiont

相關連結

2022.08.22
Metal dissolution of volcanic ashes in seawater: the effects of organic ligand addition and radiation exposure time
林建年(國立成功大學地球科學系), 何東垣
參與「氣膠重金屬組成及在海水中的循環過程」研習計畫

報告摘要

Volcanic ashes contain both dissolvable major and trace metals that would release to the surface water while depositing on the ocean. The input of the minor nutrients may help phytoplankton grow. Some trace metals would require organic ligands to maintain soluble phrase, such as siderophores. In addition, the insolation duration of the Earth surface varies significantly with latitude. The effects of siderophore and sunlight exposure times on the dissolution extent are thus studied. By self-designed experiment setup, we found that siderophore addition significantly increase the dissolution of the metals, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Al in seawater. Light exposure can slightly increase Mo, Pb ,Ti , Fe, Al and decrease Cu, Zn dissolution.

關鍵字

metal dissolution, organic ligand, radiation, volcanic ashes

相關連結

2022.08.22
The contribution of limiting nutrients to the ocean from the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
簡睿辰(英國倫敦帝國學院地球科學與工程學系), 何東垣
參與「氣膠重金屬組成及在海水中的循環過程」研習計畫

報告摘要

The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second-largest volcanic event in the 20th century, producing a bulk tephra volume of 5.5km3, with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6. This eruption lowered the global CO2 concentration by 2 ppm! It was proposed to be attributed to the effect of surface ocean fertilization from the release of limiting nutrients from the tephra.
Previous studies suggested that volcanic ashes could enhance biological fixation of atmospheric CO2, due to the significant input of bioavailable major and minor nutrients. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has reported and estimated the contribution of the limiting nutrients to the ocean, particularly P and Fe, from the 1991 eruption. Therefore, this study attempts to quantify Mt. Pinatubo’s limiting nutrient contribution.

關鍵字

Pinatubo, limiting nutrients, tephra, size-fractionated tephra, volcanic ash, solubility

相關連結

2022.08.22
The Effect of Temperature on the Trace Metal Dissolution of Volcanic Ashes
鍾淳文(香港中文大學化學系), 何東垣
參與「氣膠重金屬組成及在海水中的循環過程」研習計畫

報告摘要

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may be taken up by phytoplankton in the ocean. Some trace metals are limiting micronutrients for marine phytoplankton. The input of the trace metals may influence material cycling in the ocean. The deposition of volcanic ashes can be a major trace metal source in the surface ocean. In this project, we have evaluated the impact of temperature on the dissolution of trace metals from volcanic ashes.

關鍵字

Temperature, Trace Metal, Dissolution, Volcanic Ashes

相關連結

2022.08.22
臺灣北部地區梅雨季節車流特徵分析
梁雅惠(國立成功大學環境工程學系), 蔡宜君
參與「臺灣都會區交通源時空特徵與模擬」研習計畫

報告摘要

都會區車輛排放大量污染物,然而車流時空分布的變動相當大,使得交通源排放量的推估顯得困難,也造成空氣品質預報的挑戰。為了更精準統計及預測車流量,本研究目標 在於找出影響車流的關鍵因子,有助於改進車流及空氣品質的預報。本研究先聚焦於降雨量對車流的相關影響,分析2022年6月車流區域特徵及在梅雨季連續降雨時期之車流變化。 結果顯示:靠近郊區(萬里及林口)以小型車為主要車種,市區(板橋)則以機車為主要車種,汐止及新店則是汽車和機車比例相當。各區域主要車種均表現上下午的尖峰時段, 而大型車輛則避開上下班尖峰呈現中午較多的現象。分析基本特性後,進一步比較連續降雨時期車流的變化,顯示林口的降雨和車流有正相關;相反的,同為主車種小型車類型的 萬里則呈現負相關;而機車比例較高的板橋,在下雨時亦有車流減少的情況,至於新店則降雨量對車流影響不太大。由上述結果之差異,推測不同區域在發生連續降雨時,出現選 擇不同交通工具的行為模式。降雨量不只是直觀上會使車流減少,而是依居民特色及車流來源造成相關性不同,本研究所得不同區域的車流特徵及民眾行為模式,未來將除用於改 進交通源排放資料,亦可應用於分析交通、汽機車廢氣廢熱等課題。

關鍵字

車流預測、交通源、降雨、梅雨

相關連結

2022.08.22
Experimental Design and Construction of a Chamber for the Mixing of Aerosols-to Study the Transformation of Marine Aerosols
呂彥儒 Yen-Ru Lyu(國立臺灣海洋大學海洋環境資訊系), 張慶祖 Hing Cho Cheung
參與「混合氣膠的實驗設計與煙霧箱架設-研究海洋氣膠的轉化」研習計畫

報告摘要

Atmospheric aerosols have an important impact on human health, and climate. Also, it is very important for cloud formation and rainfall. Taiwan is an oceanic island. The air quality in Taiwan is known to be affected by the photochemical production of secondary aerosols. When the events of new particle formation (NPF) occur, the number concentration of nucleation mode particles that formed from photochemical reactions is attributed to local primary pollution.

The sea spray aerosol (SSA) represents an important source of urban aerosol for a coastal city. The interactions between inland and marine air masses, caused by land-sea breeze and monsoon, make the composition of aerosol more complicated.

We create sea spray in a laboratory environment and mix SSA with secondary organic aerosols to study the physical and chemical characteristics of the mixture aerosols.

關鍵字

sea spray aerosol, new particle formation, secondary organic aerosols

相關連結

2022.08.22
Exploring future typhoon change using Pseudo Global Warming (PGW) scenarios
張祐瑄(國立中央大學大氣科學系), 許晃雄
參與「氣候與劇烈天氣的超高解析度模擬」研習計畫

報告摘要

Typhoon-induced extreme rainfall and strong wind usually cause severe disasters, casualties, and economic losses. To explore the understanding of typhoon changes under global warming, this study foucusses on four typhoons and investigates their structure changes, dynamic and thermodynamic factors and precipitation in Taiwan in idealized pseudo-global warming (PGW) experiments.

關鍵字

Typhoon、Pseudo Global Warming、+2°C 、+4°C

相關連結

2022.08.22
臺灣測站夏季非颱風強降雨之長期變化分析
覃廉翔 (國立臺灣師範大學地球科學系), 許晃雄
參與「氣候與劇烈天氣的超高解析度模擬」研習計畫

報告摘要

近年來強降雨造成的災害頻繁發生,本研究將從臺灣經常發生強降雨災害的夏季作為研究的出發點,並選取於1980-2021年間有運作之測站的時雨量資料做進一步分析,同時排除受颱風所影響的降雨量,探討夏季強降雨是否存在長期變化趨勢?

根據分析結果,可以發現降雨型態有區域上的差異,其中台灣中、南部測站多呈現出大雨與總降雨日數比例有相關性、總降雨量增加的現象且降雨強度有增強的趨勢,有可能與臺灣夏季盛行西南氣流、對流雨的熱區有關。

關鍵字

強降雨、極端降雨、夏季降雨

相關連結

2022.08.22
Challenges and Opportunities of Agricultural Land in Taiwan under two Selected Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs)
梁奕如(國立政治大學統計學系),李泱儒 Yang-Ru Lee(國立政治大學地政學系), 陳奕穎 Yi-Ying Chen
參與「不同社會經濟發展情境下台灣土地利用變化之過程與分析」研習計畫

報告摘要

We often used to consider the impact of the climate change by making use of the directly assessment of climate fields such as temperature or precipitation; however, we may overlook the synergy effect resulting from the interactions among the cultivated plant species, environmental factors, and (crop-) managements such as shifting/adjusting the transplanting date, crop species changes, or land fallowing. Here, we demonstrated the challenges and opportunities of agricultural land in Taiwan under two selected SSPs SSP1.26 & SSP5.85 using the advanced Earth model (TaiESM1, Lee et al. 2021) projected temperature changes and future land use/land change maps originated from LUH2 (Hurtt et al. 2020; Chen et al. in preparation).

關鍵字

GDD, SSP, Land use/Land cover change, Agricultural land

相關連結

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